Whether you’re a parent, a grandparent or a friend of a child with juvenile arthritis, it’s important to learn all you can about the disease so you can help your child get the care they need. This article discusses several key issues, including what symptoms to look for, what laboratory tests to perform, and what treatments you can use.
Approximately five percent of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA). Psoriatic arthritis is a type of autoimmune disease. It is an inflammation that attacks skin cells. It can also affect other parts of the body, such as the joints.
Juvenile psoriatic arthritis can cause joint swelling and pain. It can also cause deformity and contractures. It is important to treat juvenile PsA early in order to prevent further damage and complications.
The disease is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and immune suppressants. These medications can help relieve pain and inflammation, slow bone deformities, and increase joint flexibility. They can also be combined with vitamin D to improve bone health.
Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is more common in girls than boys. It can affect the joints, skin, and other parts of the body. It affects up to 7.5 million people in the United States.
Treatment for juvenile PsA involves a team of healthcare professionals. The team will include the child’s primary healthcare provider, rheumatologist, and ophthalmologist. The goals of treatment are to prevent damage to joints, reduce pain and inflammation, and allow the child to lead a normal life.
Several studies have investigated systemic-onset juvenile arthritis (SJIA) pathogenesis, focusing on innate and adaptive immunity. While innate immunity has been well established, adaptive immunity has been neglected. Several inflammatory cytokines and molecules have been shown to be elevated in SJIA, but the mechanisms behind this have not been fully elucidated.
Systemic-onset juvenile arthritis is a rare autoinflammatory disease. The disease typically presents with fevers and rashes. Its characteristic features include intermittently high spiking fever, maculopapular rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and a balanced sex distribution. The disease is often followed by chronic arthritis.
The diagnosis of systemic-onset juvenile arthritis (SJIA) requires exclusion of other diseases. Several clinical features indicate that the disease is likely an autoinflammatory disease. For instance, a prominent Th17 gene expression signature is present in patients with acute sJIA. This signature is abrogated by early IL-1 blockade. Consequently, a subset of SJIA patients seem to be resistant to current therapies. However, further research into the pathogenesis of SJIA is needed.
Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of methotrexate for juvenile arthritis. The studies show that methotrexate is effective and helps in preventing the damage of joints. It also helps in reducing the swelling. However, there are several side effects that people have to face when taking this medication.
The mainstay of treatment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis is methotrexate. It is an oral drug that helps to reduce inflammation and pain in joints. However, it is not effective for all patients. About a third of the patients do not respond to methotrexate. In addition, about a third of the patients who discontinue the treatment do so because of adverse reactions.
In the early years of treatment, the treatment regimen was determined based on individual responses. The treatment regime was further individualized according to the subtype of JIA. It also focuses on helping the child to maintain normal activity. Symptoms should improve in six to twelve weeks.
X-rays of the bones are usually done to check for fractures and tumors. Ultrasound is also a test used to look at structures inside the body without exposing the body to radiation.
Some lab tests help to rule out other diseases and identify internal markers of arthritis. The sed rate, for example, shows how much inflammation is occurring in the body. A high sed rate may indicate a disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. But this is not a definitive diagnosis.
Other tests include a bone marrow sample, which may rule out other diseases. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may be used to see changes in the cartilage, bones and joint tissue.
A test called the antinuclear antibody test is commonly used in patients with oligoarticular JIA. It is positive in about two-thirds of patients with this subtype of JIA. A genetic test for the HLA-B27 gene is also used. This gene is present in up to five-seven percent of healthy people. This gene affects the spine, and it has been linked to spondyloarthropathies.